Alexander Fleming was a doctor and bacteriologist who discovered penicillin, receiving the Nobel Prize in 1945.
Fleming was born in Ayrshire, Scotland, on August 6, 1881, and studied
medicine, serving as a physician during World War I. Through research
and experimentation, Fleming discovered a bacteria-destroying mold which
he would call penicillin in 1928, paving the way for the use of
antibiotics in modern healthcare. He was awarded the Nobel Prize in 1945
and died on March 11, 1955.
Fleming, the seventh of eight children, was born in rural Lochfield, in
East Ayrshire, Scotland, on August 6, 1881. He attended the Louden Moor
School, the Darvel School and Kilmarnock Academy before moving to
London in 1895, where he lived with his older brother, Thomas Fleming.
In London, Fleming finished his basic education at the Regent Street
Polytechnic (now the University of Westminster).
Fleming was a
member of the Territorial Army, and served from 1900 to 1914 in the
London Scottish Regiment. He entered the medical field in 1901, studying
at St. Mary's Hospital Medical School at the University of London.
While at St. Mary's, he won the 1908 gold medal as the top medical
Early Career and World War I
Fleming had planned to become a surgeon, but a temporary position in
the Inoculation Department at St. Mary's Hospital changed his path
toward the then-new field of bacteriology. There, he developed his
research skills under the guidance of bacteriologist and immunologist
Sir Almroth Edward Wright, whose revolutionary ideas of vaccine therapy
represented an entirely new direction in medical treatment.
World War I, Fleming served in the Royal Army Medical Corps. He worked
as a bacteriologist, studying wound infections in a makeshift lab that
had been set up by Wright in Boulogne, France. Through his research
there, Fleming discovered that antiseptics commonly used at the time
were doing more harm than good, as their diminishing effects on the
body's immunity agents largely outweighed their ability to break down
harmful bacteria -- therefore, more soldiers were dying from antiseptic
treatment than from the infections they were trying to destroy.
Fleming recommended that, for more effective healing, wounds simply be
kept dry and clean. However, his recommendations largely went unheeded.
to St. Mary's after the war, in 1918, Fleming took on a new position:
assistant director of St. Mary's Inoculation Department. (He would
become a professor of bacteriology at the University of London in 1928,
and an emeritus professor of bacteriology in 1948.)
1921, while nursing a cold, Fleming discovered lysozyme, a mildly
antiseptic enzyme present in body fluids, when a drop of mucus dripped
from his nose onto a culture of bacteria. Thinking that his mucus might
have some kind of effect on bacterial growth, he mixed it with the
culture. A few weeks later, he observed that the bacteria had been
dissolved. This marked Fleming's first great discovery, as well as a
significant contribution to human immune system research. (As it turned
out, however, lysozyme had no effect on the most destructive
The Road to Penicillin
In September 1928, Fleming returned to his laboratory after a month away with his family, and noticed that a culture of Staphylococcus aureus he had left out had become contaminated with a mold (later identified as Penicillium notatum). He also discovered that the colonies of staphylococci surrounding this mold had been destroyed.
later said of the incident, "When I woke up just after dawn on
September 28, 1928, I certainly didn't plan to revolutionize all
medicine by discovering the world's first antibiotic, or bacteria
killer. But I suppose that was exactly what I did." He at first called
the substance "mold juice," and then named it "penicillin," after the
mold that produced it.
Thinking he had found an enzyme more
powerful than lysozyme, Fleming decided to investigate further. What he
found out, though, was that it was not an enzyme at all, but an
antibiotic -- one of the first antibiotics to be discovered. Further
development of the substance was not a one-man operation, as his
previous efforts had been, so Fleming recruited two young researchers.
The three men unfortunately failed to stabilize and purify penicillin,
but Fleming pointed out that penicillin had clinical potential, both in
topical and injectable forms, if it could be developed properly.
the heels of Fleming's discovery, a team of scientists from the
University of Oxford -- led by Howard Florey and his co-worker, Ernst
Chain -- isolated and purified penicillin. The antibiotic eventually
came into use during World War II, revolutionizing battlefield medicine
and, on a much broader scale, the field of infection control.
Chain and Fleming shared the 1945 Nobel Prize in Physiology or
Medicine, but their relationship was tainted over who should receive the
most credit for penicillin. The press tended to emphasize Fleming's
role due to the compelling back-story of his chance discovery and his
greater willingness to be interviewed.
Later Years and Honors
1946, Fleming succeeded Almroth Edward Wright as head of St. Mary's
Inoculation Department, which was renamed the Wright-Fleming Institute.
Additionally, Fleming served as president of the Society for General
Microbiology, a member of the Pontifical Academy of Science, and an
honorary member of nearly every medical and scientific society in the
Outside of the scientific community, Fleming was named
rector of Edinburgh University from 1951 to 1954, freeman of many
municipalities, and Honorary Chief Doy-gei-tau of the American Indian
Kiowa tribe. He was also awarded honorary doctorate degrees from nearly
30 European and American universities.
Fleming died of a heart
attack on March 11, 1955, at his home in London, England. He was
survived by his second wife, Dr. Amalia Koutsouri-Vourekas, and his only
child, Robert, from his first marriage.
Here's my custom which i made for this great scientist!!!
And here's two photos that i make with Alexander Fleming
This beautiful art set is a promo figure which was produced for the well-known Rijksmuseum, a national museum dedicated to arts and history in Amsterdam. An edition of about 20,000 units was produced for this purpose.
Therefore, the set is not available in the regular PLAYMOBIL product range.
The figure is a miniature replica of Johannes Vermeer's (1632 – 1675) famous painting "The Milkmaid". The original painting is of course also displayed at the Rijksmuseum which regards it as "unquestionably one of the museum's finest attractions".
For both PLAYMOBIL Nederland and the
museum, this cooperation is something special: It allows children a
playful approach not only to an important artwork but also to the
country's cultural heritage.
Vivandieres, sometimes known as cantinieres, were women who followed the
army to provide support for the troops. Ideally, a vivandiere would
have been a young woman the daughter of an officer or wife of a
non-commissioned officer who wore a uniform and braved battles to
provide care for wounded soldiers on the battlefield.
The history of vivandieres can be traced to the French Zouave regiments
in the Crimean War. By 1859, many local militia regiments in the United
States had adopted the name “Zouave,” wore colorful uniforms, and
adopted the practice of having a “daughter of the regiment” in their
ranks. At the outbreak of the American Civil War, these regiments — in
both the North and the South — answered the call for troops. Vivandieres
saw most of their service during the early years of the war. By
September 1864, General Ulysses S. Grant ordered that all women be
removed from military camps in his theater.
Vivandieres did not
fight in battles but were often armed, earned honors, and were sometimes
captured by the enemy. Their most important contribution was the
essential medical care they provided as field nurses. As battles raged,
vivandieres made their way through the wounded offering immediate medial
care. Calculating the exact number of women who served as vivandieres
is nearly impossible. Neither North nor South recognized the service of
vivandieres and they are rarely mentioned in official records. Their
courage and brave deeds are recorded in personal accounts and post-war
regimental histories. While we cannot put a name to the young woman in
this photograph, there are a few vivandieres whose names have become
symbolic of all those who served:
Sarah Taylor – 1st Tennessee (US) – prisoner of war
Marie Tepe – Collis’ Zouaves – awarded the Kearny Cross
Eliza Wilson – 5th Wisconsin
Ella Gibson – 49th Ohio
Lucy Ann Cox – 13th Virginia
Kady Brownell –1st and 5th Rhode Island
Bridget Divers – 1st Michigan Cavalry
Annie Etheridge – 3rd and 5th Michigan – awarded the Kearny Cross
Tepe was one such courageous woman. Originally born in France in 1834,
Marie was raised by her father and later moved to the United States
following his death. When she was nearly 20 years of age, she married
Bernhard Tepe, a Philadelphia tailor. When the Civil War began, her
husband joined the 27th Pennsylvania Volunteer Infantry Regiment. As
soon as her husband left so did Marie, despite Bernhard wanting her to
stay and mind the tailor shop in Philadelphia.
In the spring of 1861, Marie Tepe became a vivandiere with the 27th
Pennsylvania Volunteers. She is better known as the vivandiere of the
114th Pennsylvania. The original company of that regiment was organized
in the early weeks of August, 1861, by Captain Charles H. T. Collis as
the Zouaves d'Afrique. Then in mid-August of 1862, Collis raised nine
more companies to form the 114th, with himself as colonel. Like the
original company, the 114th was a Zouave unit, based on the renowned
North African and European Zouave regiments of the French army. The
soldiers wore a Zouave uniform; so did Mrs. Tepe, who left the 27th and
went with Collis's outfit. She wore a blue jacket and red pants; to
distinguish herself from the men, she wore a skirt trimmed in red.
"French Mary," as she was often called, participated in the Battle of
Fredericksburg, December 13, 1862. During the battle, she received a
bullet wound to the ankle. For her bravery during the battle she
received the coveted Kearny Cross, which was awarded to valorous
veterans of the First Division of the III Army Corps in memory of its
late division commander, General Philip Kearny.
After a short
hospitalization she rejoined the regiment. In July 1863, Marie and her
regiment joined the fight at Gettysburg, Pennsylvania. When the battle
was over, "French Mary" volunteered her services as a nurse to help the
wounded. After a few weeks of tending to the injured she continued on
with her regiment. Marie Tepe served through the rest of the war and
later moved to Pittsburgh. She attended the reunion of the Battle of
Fredericksburg in 1893. The famous "French Mary" died in 1901.
Vivandieres who served in the Civil War showed great courage in the
face of battle. These daring souls, like Marie Tepe, are the forgotten
women of the Civil War. They went above and beyond the duties of a
vivandiere to serve their country. French Mary and other vivandieres
earned the recognition and respect of their regiments. They deserve to
And here's my custom for the Marie Tepe aka "The French Mary"...
PLAYMOBIL Bus, ένα διώροφο λεωφορείο γεμάτο PLAYMOBIL, ξεκινάει τις
βόλτες του στην Αθήνα, με σκοπό να μοιράσει τα πιο ζωηρά και λαμπερά
χαμόγελα. Για τέσσερις ημέρες, από τις 19 έως και τις 22 Ιουνίου, το
PLAYMOBIL Bus θα κυκλοφορεί σε διάφορες περιοχές της Αθήνας, για να
παίξει με τον κόσμο και να χαρίσει ώρες χαράς και ενθουσιασμού σε όλους.
ThePLAYMOBIL Bus,a double-deckerbus fullPLAYMOBIL,your mindstartsto Athens,in order todeal themostvividandbrightsmiles.For fourdays, from19 to22 June,thePLAYMOBIL Buswill bereleasedin variousparts of Athens,to play withthe world andgivehours of funandexcitementto all.
Βεβαια...την βολτα την εκανα και ηταν.....απιθανη!!!!!!!!!!!!!
By the way...I did the ride and was.....awesome!!!!!!!!